Je hebt er misschien wel eens over gehoord als je geïnteresseerd bent in het internet, subnetten. Maar wat is dit precies en hoe kun je hier als IT’er of als geïnteresseerde iets mee? Nou, je bent in ieder geval op zoek naar deze informatie dus we hopen dat we je op weg kunnen helpen met een simpele uitleg over dit onderwerp.
In Klasse A wordt alleen het eerste octet gebruikt als Network identifier en de rest van drie octetten worden gebruikt om te worden toegewezen aan Hosts (d.w.z. 16777214 Hosts per Netwerk). Om meer subnet te maken in Klasse A, worden bits van Host deel geleend en wordt het subnet masker overeenkomstig aangepast.
Als er bijvoorbeeld één MSB (Most Significant Bit) wordt geleend van hostbits van het tweede octet en wordt toegevoegd aan het netwerkadres, dan worden er twee Subnets (21=2) aangemaakt met (223-2) 8388606 Hosts per Subnet.
Het Subnet-masker wordt dienovereenkomstig gewijzigd om subnetting weer te geven. Hieronder staat een lijst met alle mogelijke combinaties van klasse A-subnets:
Ook bij subnetting wordt het allereerste en laatste IP van elk subnet gebruikt voor respectievelijk Subnetnummer en Subnet Broadcast IP. Omdat deze twee IP-adressen niet aan hosts kunnen worden toegewezen, kan subnetting niet worden geïmplementeerd door meer dan 30 bits als netwerkbits te gebruiken, wat minder dan twee hosts per subnet oplevert. Bron: internetvergelijken.org
Standaard worden met behulp van Classful Networking 14 bits gebruikt als netwerkbits die (214) 16384 Netwerken en (216-2) 65534 Hosts leveren. IP-adressen van klasse B kunnen op dezelfde manier worden gesubnett als klasse A-adressen, door bits te lenen van Host-bits. Hieronder vindt u alle mogelijke combinaties van klasse B subnetwerken:
Klasse C Subnetten
Klasse C IP adressen worden normaal gesproken toegewezen aan een zeer klein netwerk omdat het slechts 254 hosts in een netwerk kan hebben. Hieronder staat een lijst met alle mogelijke combinaties van subnette IP-adressen van klasse B:
Internet Service Providers kunnen te maken krijgen met een situatie waarin zij IP-subnetten van verschillende grootte moeten toewijzen volgens de eisen van de klant.
Een klant kan vragen om een klasse C-subnet van 3 IP-adressen en een andere klant kan vragen om 10 IP-adressen. Voor een ISP is het niet haalbaar om de IP-adressen op te splitsen in subnetten van vaste grootte, maar het kan zijn dat hij de subnetten op zo’n manier wil subnetten dat er zo min mogelijk IP-adressen verloren gaan.
Een beheerder heeft bijvoorbeeld een 192.168.1.0/24 netwerk. Het achtervoegsel /24 (uitgesproken als “schuine streep 24”) vertelt het aantal bits dat gebruikt wordt voor het netwerkadres.
In dit voorbeeld heeft de beheerder drie verschillende afdelingen met een verschillend aantal hosts. De verkoopafdeling heeft 100 computers, de inkoopafdeling heeft 50 computers, Accounts heeft 25 computers en het beheer heeft 5 computers. In CIDR zijn de subnetten van vaste grootte. Met dezelfde methodologie kan de beheerder niet aan alle eisen van het netwerk voldoen.
I Like Technology. I’m surrendering all the great and fun things that PC based innovation has brought into our lives; I’ll not take on that conflict. In addition to the fact that I would lose any contention against the magnificent increases innovation has made to our lives, I would be battling against myself. I love it that I can flip open a Star Trek “communicator” and converse with nearly anybody, whenever. I love the general concept of having a specialized gadget out in my back yard, close to the flying creature feeder, that is speaking with a satellite in low earth circle. Amazing! What’s more, do I ever adore my PC oh no, PCs. As in numerous PCs. Truth be told, my activity is emphatically attached to innovation and I love to get paid. Be that as it may, this article is an admonition, a supplication to open our eyes more extensive than our extra large flat screen televisions, to step pull out of phone territory, to put down our PDAs for a moment and see what has taken a few to get back some composure on us.
Innovation is Seductive
Innovation has the ability to attract us and cause us to lose point of view about what’s going on. Simply have a go at conversing with your youngster (or possibly your life partner or closest companion) whenever some smooth TV program or business is sparkling over the screen and you’ll see what has the entirety of their consideration. Innovation attracts us. Be that as it may, in case we’re attracted, we’re likewise abandoning something. We could be forsaking cherishing or creating connections or the calm time important to contemplate our lives, where we are going and how we need to live quite a while from now. To proceed with this thought, innovation is alluring, we should take a gander at the normal movement of how we react to new innovation.
Innovation as a Toy
All new innovation comes to us in the pretense of a toy, along these lines its underlying enticing draw on us. Regardless of the age, the new innovation feels like a toy. It is smooth, pretty and flashes little lights. It causes charming sounds and we to react to it from the uncorrupt (or whimsical) focal point of our being. It isn’t the advanced multi year old business official that is reacting to the new generally useful, profoundly developed innovation thing, it is rather the multi year old youngster inside that is spouting and loaded up with Christmas morning desire. We probably won’t have any approach to utilize it yet, however we play with it. We turn channels, set the volume on the 96 encompass sound speakers (yours doesn’t have 96?), take photos of our toes with it, and energetically seek after carpel burrow issues as fast as our thumbs and fingers can fly over enjoyment minimal shaded catches. It is a toy. In any case, it moves develop into our next classification and that causes us to feel a little better about it and encourages us keep away from the way that we simply went through a time of future retirement on a toy.
Innovation as a Tool
The toy generally turns into an apparatus. In our powerful urges to legitimize the acquisition of the toy, we search for things it can do. Ok, it keeps my schedule. Cool! Presently I won’t need to monitor my $29.00 day organizer and stress over losing it. I simply need to stress over losing my $495 PDA. However, it can likewise take pictures. That is significant. It’s additionally acceptable that it can eradicate them since I discover I take a great deal of pictures that are truly poop and now I not just invested energy taking the photos, I likewise find a workable pace deleting them. In any case, the toys frequently transform into intense apparatuses. I may keep on utilizing my mobile phone toy as I unknowingly blow through red lights and make turns without flagging (need that extra arm for the cell), however I additionally understand this toy is a genuine wellbeing instrument. I would prefer not to be stalled on the thruway and not have this connect to help. A similar 50″ level screen inside decoration that is a toy is likewise an instrument to know about compromising climate and significant recent developments. Furthermore, the scratch pad PC that enables me to take a gander at pictures of potential Russian ladies causes me compose this article and undertaking speculation returns. Toys have the capability of turning out to be instruments. From young doggies to working canines. Be that as it may, there is a third and increasingly hazardous level.
In the previous hardly any decades there has been an unrest in registering and interchanges, and all signs are that mechanical advancement and utilization of data innovation will proceed at a quick pace. Going with and supporting the emotional increments in the force and utilization of new data advances has been the declining cost of interchanges because of both innovative enhancements and expanded challenge. As indicated by Moore’s law the preparing intensity of microchips is multiplying like clockwork. These advances present numerous noteworthy chances yet in addition present significant difficulties. Today, developments in data innovation are having wide-going impacts over various areas of society, and strategy creators are following up on issues including financial efficiency, licensed innovation rights, security assurance, and moderateness of and access to data. Decisions made currently will have durable results, and consideration must be paid to their social and financial effects.
One of the most critical results of the advancement of data innovation is presumably electronic trade over the Internet, another method for directing business. Despite the fact that lone a couple of years old, it might drastically adjust monetary exercises and the social condition. As of now, it influences such huge segments as interchanges, back and retail exchange and may grow to territories, for example, instruction and wellbeing administrations. It infers the consistent use of data and correspondence innovation along the whole worth chain of a business that is directed electronically.
The effects of data innovation and electronic trade on plans of action, business, showcase structure, working environment, work advertise, instruction, private life and society all in all.
1. Plans of action, Commerce and Market Structure
One significant manner by which data innovation is influencing work is by decreasing the significance of separation. In numerous enterprises, the geographic dissemination of work is evolving essentially. For example, some product firms have discovered that they can conquer the tight neighborhood showcase for programming engineers by sending undertakings to India or different countries where the wages are a lot of lower. Besides, such game plans can exploit the time contrasts with the goal that basic tasks can be taken a shot at almost nonstop. Firms can re-appropriate their assembling to different countries and depend on media communications to continue showcasing, R&D, and dissemination groups in close contact with the assembling gatherings. In this manner the innovation can empower a better division of work among nations, which thusly influences the relative interest for different aptitudes in every country. The innovation empowers different sorts of work and work to be decoupled from each other. Firms have more noteworthy opportunity to find their financial exercises, making more noteworthy challenge among districts in foundation, work, capital, and other asset markets. It additionally opens the entryway for administrative exchange: firms can progressively pick which charge authority and different guidelines apply.
PCs and correspondence innovations additionally advance more market-like types of generation and dissemination. A framework of processing and correspondence innovation, giving 24-hour access requiring little to no effort to practically any sort of cost and item data wanted by purchasers, will lessen the enlightening obstructions to effective market activity. This foundation may likewise give the way to affecting constant exchanges and make middle people, for example, deals representatives, stock merchants and trip specialists, whose capacity is to give a fundamental data interface among purchasers and venders, excess. Evacuation of middle people would lessen the expenses in the creation and appropriation esteem chain. The data innovations have encouraged the development of improved mail request retailing, in which products can be requested rapidly by utilizing phones or PC systems and afterward dispatched by providers through incorporated vehicle organizations that depend widely on PCs and correspondence advancements to control their activities. Nonphysical products, for example, programming, can be delivered electronically, dispensing with the whole vehicle channel. Installments should be possible in new manners. The outcome is disintermediation all through the dissemination channel, with cost decrease, lower end-purchaser costs, and higher net revenues.
The effect of data innovation on the organizations’ cost structure can be best delineated on the electronic trade model. The key regions of cost decrease when doing a deal through electronic business as opposed to in a conventional store include physical foundation, request arrangement and execution, client care, solid, stock conveying, and dispersion. Despite the fact that setting up and keeping up a web based business site may be costly, it is positively more affordable to keep up such a retail facade than a physical one since it is constantly open, can be gotten to by millions around the world, and has barely any factor costs, so it can scale up to satisfy the need. By looking after one ‘store’ rather than a few, copy stock expenses are disposed of. What’s more, online business is extremely powerful at diminishing the expenses of drawing in new clients, since promoting is ordinarily less expensive than for other media and more focused on. Also, the electronic interface permits web based business shippers to watch that a request is inside predictable and that the request, receipt, and receipt coordinate. Through web based business, firms can move quite a bit of their client assistance on line with the goal that clients can get to databases or manuals legitimately. This altogether reduces expenses while for the most part improving the nature of administration. Web based business shops require far less, however high-gifted, representatives. Web based business likewise allows investment funds in stock conveying costs. The quicker the info can be requested and conveyed, the less the requirement for an enormous stock. The effect on costs related with diminished inventories is generally articulated in businesses where the item has a constrained timeframe of realistic usability (for example bananas), is liable to quick mechanical out of date quality or value decays (for example PCs), or where there is a quick progression of new items (for example books, music). In spite of the fact that transportation expenses can expand the expense of numerous items bought by means of electronic trade and add generously to the last value, circulation costs are altogether decreased for computerized items, for example, monetary administrations, programming, and travel, which are significant web based business sections.
Albeit electronic business causes the disintermediation of certain mediators, it makes more prominent reliance on others and furthermore some totally new go-between capacities. Among the middle person benefits that could add expenses to web based business exchanges are promoting, secure online installment, and conveyance. The overall simplicity of turning into a web based business trader and setting up stores brings about such countless contributions that purchasers can without much of a stretch be overpowered. This builds the significance of utilizing publicizing to set up a brand name and along these lines produce buyer recognition and trust. For new web based business new businesses, this procedure can be costly and speaks to a critical exchange cost. The receptiveness, worldwide reach, and absence of physical intimations that are inalienable qualities of web based business additionally make it defenseless against misrepresentation and along these lines increment certain expenses for web based business dealers when contrasted with customary stores. New systems are being created to ensure the utilization of Visas in web based business exchanges, however the requirement for more prominent security and client check prompts expanded expenses. A key element of online business is the accommodation of having buys conveyed legitimately. On account of physical assets, for example, books, this brings about conveyance costs, which cause costs to ascend by and large, along these lines refuting a significant number of the reserve funds related with internet business and generously adding to exchange costs.
With the Internet, online business is quickly venturing into a quick moving, open worldwide market with an ever-expanding number of members. The open and worldwide nature of online business is probably going to build advertise size and change showcase structure, both regarding the number and size of players and the manner by which players contend on global markets. Digitized items can cross the outskirt progressively, customers can shop 24 hours every day, seven days per week, and firms are progressively confronted with universal online challenge. The Internet is assisting with expanding existing markets by slicing through a large number of the dispersion and showcasing obstructions that can keep firms from accessing remote markets. Internet business brings down data and exchange costs for working on abroad markets and gives a modest and productive approach to fortify client provider relations. It likewise urges organizations to create imaginative methods for publicizing, conveying and supporting their item and administrations. While web based business on the Internet offers the potential for worldwide markets, certain variables, for example, language, transport costs, neighborhood notoriety, just as contrasts in the expense and simple entry to systems, lessen this possibility to a more prominent or lesser degree.
2. Work environment and Labor Market
PCs and correspondence advancements permit people to speak with each other in manners integral to conventional vis-à-vis, telephonic, and composed modes. They empower collective work including appropriated networks of entertainers who sometimes, if at any point, meet genuinely. These advancements use correspondence frameworks that are both worldwide and consistently up, in this manner empowering 24-hour action and offbeat just as synchronous communications among people, gatherings, and associations. Social connection in associations will be influenced by utilization of PCs and correspondence advances. Distributed relations across office lines will be improved through sharing of data.